Knee joint arthroscopy is little invasive surgery that is done through small, approximately 1 cm wide incisions in the knee joint. During the procedure your orthopaedic surgeon inserts 4 mm video camera objective with very bright light beam into the knee joint, thus illuminating otherwise completely dark space of the knee joint. In the frequentative magnification the attending surgeon sees the internal space of the hip joint capsule on the screen. Surgery is performed through the remaining incisions places.
Surgery performed in arthroscopy is significantly more caring than the surgery of the open knee joint; recovery period is comparatively short and scars after the surgery - insignificant.
Reconstruction of the ligaments of knee joint Most frequent rupture of the ligaments of knee joint is rupture of the cruciate ligaments. If ligaments are completely torn, they do not grow together even if the ends are stitched together. Reconstruction has to be performed to restore cruciate ligament. For this purpose tissue of the person or donor is used. Usually all reconstructions of the ligaments of knee joint are performed with arthroscopy.
Meniscus surgery In Latvia meniscus surgery is performed with arthroscopy or performing two incisions in the knee joint.
You can resume non-active sports, for example, training in gym, already starting from the tenth day after the surgery. You can resume jogging or swimming during three month time, if the parts of meniscus have been taken out, but during six months time, if the meniscus is stitched.
Mosaicplasty During the surgery fragments of the bone are taken from the healthy part of the cartilage and implanted in the damaged parts of the cartilage. Surgery is performed during situations when the damaged part of the cartilage is subjected to big loads.
Closing of the defect of cartilage with chondrofiller. “Gluing” of the damaged parts of cartilage by inserting matrix with cells of cartilage. When they multiply, damaged part of the cartilage is restored.
Osteotomy Before endoprosthesis of the knee joint it is possible to perform much caring surgery – Osteotomy – by altering mechanical axle of the leg or redistribution of the weight on the surfaces of joints. During the surgery shank and femur is cut in certain plane and angle, thus straightening anatomic axle of the leg, bringing it near to the normal condition, relieving damaged part in the knee joint and putting weight on relatively healthy. This surgery is usually performed for young and active persons up to 65 years of age, to whom non-surgical treatment did not turn out to be helpful and who suffers from the pain caused by arthrosis or osteoarthritis. This surgery can be performed if the patient does not have excess weight, explicit limitations of the movements has not developed in the knee and deformation in the bones of the knee is not too profound.
Arthroplasty/endoprosthesis and revision of the knee joint
Endoprosthesis of the knee joint is the most frequently performed endoprosthesis surgery. Statistics indicate that in 98% cases surgery was successful.
Arthroplasty/endoprosthesis of the knee joint is not as traumatic as people sometimes imagine, assuming that the bones damaged by arthrosis will be sawn off and prosthesis will be placed instead of them. This is the case only in case of bone tumour. In its nature endoprosthesis of the knee joint remind of activities happening in the dentist’s office when caps are put on teeth. Ends of the bones are slightly sewn, meniscus removed which usually for the people having endoprosthesis of the knee joint can be severely damaged, but after endoprosthesis – they become redundant – and artificial surfaces of the joints are placed on the ends of the bones; surfaces are made from metal, ceramics or polymer.
To secure precision computer navigation is applied during the surgery.
Significant stage of endoprosthesis is sewing of the bone. This procedure is performed not directly but applying special bloc resection. Before the surgery calculations are made, bones of the particular patient is studied and on the basis of his professional experience surgeon during the endoprosthesis surgery places bloc resection onto the bone to precisely reveal parts to be sawn off. Accuracy is essential in obtaining maximally positive result of the surgery. Due to this reason ORTO clinic provides the possibility to patients to order individually made bloc resections.
Two weeks before the surgery magnetic resonance of the entire leg is performed to the patient, data obtained are sent to the manufacturers of endoprosthesis where unique, anatomically completely conformable bloc resection is developed. Unlike standardised which are maximally adjusted to the peculiarities of the bones of particular person, individually made conforms completely, thus increasing better result of the surgery.
Average lifetime of the endoprosthesis of the knee joint is around 20 years.
Revision of knee joint arthroplasty /endoprosthesis During the surgery damaged parts of the bone and knee joint cartilage is removed. Removed bone is replaced with artificial implant – metal alloy, ceramics or polyethylene. Aim of the surgery is to reduce pain and improve mobility of the knee joint. Arthroplasty more frequently are performed for the knee joint osteoarthritis patients. Also frequently surgery is a solution in case of rheumatoid arthritis, osteonecrosis, severe injuries, fractures of knee bone and tumours.
Revision of knee joint arthroplasty/endoprosthesis is more complicated and longer surgery than the initial endoprosthesis. Endoprosthesis of the knee joint serves from 10 to 25 years. But after the revision surgery endoprosthesis serve approximately 80% from this time.