Hip osteoarthritis. Is a degenerative illness of the hip joint related to the overall ageing of the body and usually affects people older than 50 years of age. When the cartilages in the hip joint wears thin, they do not sufficiently protect bones of the joint from direct, mutual contact. Direct contact of the bones cause pain and inflammation. In the X-ray image in healthy joint between bones there is a narrow seemingly “empty” zone. This zone is cartilage. In the X-ray image of the joint damaged by osteoarthritis bones are located next to each other and there are no “empty” zones between them.
Osteoarthritis can be caused not only by the natural process of ageing but also overload of joints (in work, sports or due to excess weight), arthritis or genetic predisposition.
One of the first signs of osteoarthritis is loss of the rotation abilities of the hip joint. Pain while moving is added to this symptom, as well as stiffness in the hip joint and limping. Intensity of symptoms can change, sometimes causing feeling of complete recovery but sometimes creating very explicit disturbances.
Osteoarthritis does not go away still it is possible to limit development of this illness and maximally improve life quality. To achieve this you need to care for your weight, learn and under the supervision of physiotherapist regularly perform special set of exercises for strengthening of ligaments and muscles of the hips, take care of the hip joint at big loads, consult the doctor, use anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications and perform injections promoting regeneration processes in the joint affected by the disease. In certain cases endoprosthesis of the hip joint is required.
Femoroacetabular impingement is a condition where the bones of the hip are abnormally shaped. Gradually rubbing develops, movements are limited in the joint and pain occurs. Cause of the illness can be also injury of the joint. This illness causes osteoarthritis. You can feel sharp (but sometimes dull) pain while turning and squatting. Osteophytes can be removed surgically but with time they develop anew, damaging the joint.
Bursitis of the hip joint is an inflammation that occurs in the sac of the hip joint (fluid-filled sack). Signs of inflammation are pain in the hip joint at the side of the buttocks or muscle of the buttocks, pain when you lay down on the inflamed hip, while pressing on the hip joint, getting up from the sitting position, going up and down the stairs. Pain can be caused by various reasons, for example, bruise of the hip, overload of the hip while running, jumping or standing for a prolonged period of time, incorrect posture.
To precisely determine reason for the pain injection of analgesic medications in the fluid-filled sac is performed to make sure whether when the pain caused by bursitis are eliminated other kind of pain does not occur and cause of this pain is still to be determined.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesic medications, as well as injections of corticosteroids in the hip joint are used for the treatment for inflammation of the hip. It rapidly reduces pain and swelling, therefore frequently it is applied in cases when the non-steroidal inflammatory drugs does not provide the expected result or patient does not tolerate those drugs. Physiotherapy is recommended after consulting with Traumatology – Orthopaedic specialist.
Fracture of the bones forming joint of the hip most frequently develop for elderly people suffering from osteoporosis. Due to the fragility of bones characteristic to the illness fracture can be caused by seemingly unsubstantial fall or bruise. Bones of the hip joint for young people break due to severe trauma, for example, traffic accident.
Signs of the fracture of the hip joint bones are pain in shank and groin especially during movements.
Fractures of the hip joint bones are treated both conservatively and surgically. Surgeon decides upon the most suitable form of treatment by evaluating type and size of fracture.
If you need surgery, during the surgery the fractured bone is replaced or the place of fracture is fixed with metal plane or screw to promote correct coalescence of the bone.
Dysplasia of the hip joint is hip joint development disturbances due to which bones of the hip joint forms mutual discrepancy that gradually damage this joint. Instability of the joint develops, as well as partial or full twists. During youth people with this kind of illness have excessive elasticity of the hip joint – without preparation they can do the splits and perform other acrobatic exercises. These skills indicate about problems in the hip joint.
If the dysplasia of the hip is not treated, osteoarthritis develops. There are several non-surgical solutions that are applied to maintain survival of the hip joint as long as possible. Still anti-inflammatory medications, maintaining of optimum body weight, physiotherapy exercising or using of a stick while walking are only temporary solutions because they can not prevent the cause – incorrectly formed hip that causes damages by itself. In contradiction to the hip pathology, illness gradually progresses and surgery is necessary. The final solution is replacement of the hip joint – arthroplasty or endoprosthesis.
Osteonecrosis of the hip joint occurs when blood circulation is disturbed in the bone and it does not get necessary nutrients. As a result cells of the bone and parts of the bone perish. Most frequent factors causing osteonecrosis are:
- Serious injury causing disturbances in the bone blood supply,
- Prolonged or excessive usage of corticosteroids,
- Excessive consumption of alcohol.
Still sometimes reasons of osteonecrosis are unclear.
Bone necrosis cause pain and limitations in the joint affected by the disease. If osteonecrosis is discovered timely and affected only small parts of the bone, analgesic medications and reduction of load (including also walking) can provide good results. When the illness progresses - surgical intervention is required. For the treatment of osteonecrosis various type and complexity surgeries are required up to the complete replacement of the hip joint – arthroplasty or endoprosthesis.