Spine surgery

Knitting together of the vertebra of spine. Aim of surgery is to block separate movements of the vertebra of the spine, by knitting them together. As a result vertebra of the spine does not irritate and strangulate spinal cord and nerve rootlets, thus limiting cause of the pain. In case of the fixation of vertebra implant is placed in the spine promoting growing of the bone between separate vertebras (promotes growing together of those vertebra?)

Knitting together of vertebra is applied to treat various illnesses and injuries of the spine, for example, stenosis of the spine canal, spondylosis, scoliosis, fractures to reduce backache and leg ache connected with degenerative processes in the discs of the spine. After the surgery vertebras of the spine grow together within three to six month time. In certain cases this process takes up a year.

Decompression

 Term is related to all type of surgical operations with the purpose to stretch the spine with the goal of relieving back pain and clearing space for compressed spinal cord and nerves. Depending on what type of tissues are being operated to clear space for the spinal nerves, this surgery is called: laminectomy (taking out of the part of the bone that is located in the back part of the spine canal and creates peculiar roof above the spinal cord), foraminotomy (taking out of the part of the bone through which the spinal nerve goes through  – in space where the nerve rootlet of the spine goes out from the vertebra of the spine) or discectomy (taking out of the disc of the spine, thus reducing pressure on the nerves of the spine).

Laminectomy is performed to reduce pressure on the spine of the canal. With the help of this surgery lumbar spinal stenosis and spondylosis is treated. Surgery usually uses implants, thus attaining greater stability in the particular stage of the spine. During laminectomy small part of the bone is taken out located in the back part of the lumbar canal. Surgery provides feeling of immediate relief, pain is reduced. Still pain in legs, insensibility and weakness can last for several weeks after the surgery.

Foraminotomy takes pressure off of a nerve in your spinal column. During foraminotomy small part of the bone and other tissues are taken out that compress nerves of the spine at its exit from the spinal vertebra. Majority of patients immediately feel relief and disturbing symptoms goes away completely. In separate cases pain stays for few days after the surgery.

Microdiscectomy or taking out of the herniated lumbar disc. Microdiscectomy can be performed in every part of the spine – cervical, chest or lumbar. Surgeon reaches the damaged disc from the back through muscles and bones. Surgeon reaches the disc by performing opening of the spinal canal - fenestration. There are different surgical tools and methods to perform discectomy. „Opened” technique uses big incision in the skin and lifting of muscles, in order surgeon could directly see the anatomy. Minimally invasive technique that is called microdiscectomy uses small incision into the skin and discectomy is performed under the control of microscope. Microdiscectomy is performed to treat herniated lumbar disc and eliminate pain in legs related to that. Minimally invasive technique provides smaller traumatisation of tissues and can reduce recovery time.

Cervical (neck part) discectomy. It can be very effective to eliminate pain caused by the compressed nerve rootlets and stenosis of the spine. During the surgery intervertebral disc or several discs are surgically removed. Cervical discectomy is performed through small incision in the frontal part of the neck. After taking out of the disc space between vertebras are replaced with artificial implant of the disc to maintain correct distance between vertebras that is physiologically secured by disc.

Replacement of the spine disc is performed with the purpose to reduce backache. During the surgery damaged parts of the lumbar disc or several discs are removed, replacing them with artificial – implants made from metal or other materials. Replacement of discs can be performed both in the cervical and lumbar part.

Kyphoplasty is little invasive surgical procedure that is performed to heal osteoporotic fractures of the spine vertebras. A special balloon is inserted to stabilize the damaged vertebra with the purpose to straighten out places of fracture and restore anatomically correct shape of vertebra. When it is achieved, balloon is taken out and acrylic cohesive substance is injected in the vertebra to fixate and maintain correct height and shape of vertebra.

Vertebroplasty is little invasive surgical procedure that is performed for the treatment of fractures of osteoporotic vertebra of the spine. Place of the fracture is stabilized with special cohesive substance that is injected in the rupture place of the vertebra. In case of the vertebroplasty initial physiological height and shape of the vertebra is not restored.

Injection in facet joints. Facet joints are located in the back of spine vertebras between each pair of vertebras. These joints secure stability of the spine and create possibility to bend and turn.

Osteoarthritis of the facet joint is caused by the wear and tear of the cartilage of those joints. It usually causes explicit pain. Reasons for the wear and tear of the cartilage can be preliminary fractures and traumas of vertebra. Still the most typical reason is the ageing process of the spine.

By introducing analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications in joints, injections can reduce pain caused by arthritis. Local anaesthesia is used for performing of facet joint injections and it is done under X-ray control.

Epidural blockade. Effective minimally invasive treatment method that is used for the treatment of inflammation of the spinal cord and nerve rootlets. It is applied in various illnesses of lumbar part of the spine by introducing long-lasting steroid medications in the epidural space of the spinal canal. This treatment provides the ability to rapidly reduce or prevent pain caused by the inflammation of nerve structure.